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Study concludes that women are more likely to die of heart attacks than men



A new study concludes that women are more susceptible to potentially fatal consequences after having a heart attack, which is why it suggests stepping up follow-up of victims.

Women are more than twice as likely to die after a heart attack than men, according to a study published in 2023 heart failure, Scientific meeting of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

“Women of all ages are at particularly high risk of a poor prognosis when they experience a heart attack.” it says Dr. Mariana Martinho of the García de Orta de Armada Hospital (Portugal), author of the study cited by European Press.

“These women need regular follow-up after a heart attack, including tight control of blood pressure, cholesterol levels and diabetes, and referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Smoking levels are increasing among young women. , we need to address this issue while promoting physical activity and healthy living,” she explains.

Previous studies have shown that women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have a worse prognosis during hospitalization than men, due to their older age, higher number of other conditions, It has been shown that the low use of medical devices may be the cause. A stent to open a blocked artery (percutaneous coronary intervention; PCI).

This study compared short- and long-term outcomes after STEMI in women and men and investigated whether there were gender differences in both premenopausal (≤55 years) and postmenopausal (≥55 years) women.

This is a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for STEMI between 2010 and 2015 and treated with PCI within 48 hours of symptom onset.

Adverse outcomes were defined as 30-day all-cause mortality, 5-year all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; composite of all-cause mortality, reinfarction, hospitalization for heart failure, and stroke). I was. ) fifth year.

The study included 884 patients with a mean age of 62 years and 27% were women. Women were older than men (mean 67 vs. 60 years) and had higher prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes and stroke. Men were smokers and more likely to have coronary heart disease.

Although the interval from symptoms to PCI treatment overall did not differ between women and men, women aged 55 years and younger had significantly longer delays in treatment after hospital arrival than men (95 min vs. 80 minutes).

After controlling for factors that may affect the relationship, including diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, peripheral artery disease, stroke, and family history, the researchers found that women and Risks of adverse outcomes were compared among men. coronary artery disease.

At 30 days, 11.8% of women had died compared to 4.6% of men, representing a risk ratio (HR) of 2.76. At 5 years, nearly one-third (32.1%) of women had died, compared with 16.9% (HR 2.33) of men. More than one-third of her females (34.2%) had her MACE within her 5 years, compared with 19.8% of males (HR 2.10).

“After adjusting for other conditions, and despite having PCI at the same time as men, women were two to three times more likely than men to experience adverse outcomes in the short and long term. explains Dr. Martinho.

The researchers conducted another analysis matching men and women based on cardiovascular disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol and smoking. Adverse outcomes were then compared between matched men and women aged ≤55 years and between matched men and women aged ≥55 years.

A total of 435 patients participated in paired analyses. Among matched patients aged 55 years or older, all measured adverse outcomes were more frequent in women than in men. 11.3% of women died within 30 days compared to 3.0% of men, corresponding to a HR of 3.85.

At 5 years, one-third (32.9%) of women died compared to 15.8% (HR 2.35) of men and more than one-third (34.1%) of women experienced MACE. , 17.6% (HR 2.15) in men. Among matched patients aged 55 years or younger, 1 in 5 women (20.0%) experienced MACE within 5 years, compared with 5.8% (hazard ratio 3.91) of men, 30 days or 5 years. There was no age difference between men and women. All-cause death.

“Postmenopausal women had worse short-term and long-term outcomes after myocardial infarction than age-matched men,” Martinho added. Short-term mortality in premenopausal women was similar, but long-term prognosis was poorer than in men. “

“Our study did not investigate the reasons for these differences, but atypical presentations and genetic predisposition to myocardial infarction in women may play a role,” she said. No differences were found between women and men regarding the use of drugs to lower blood pressure or lipid levels. “

“This finding serves as another reminder of the need to raise awareness of the risk of heart disease in women. can take steps to fill

Source: Biobiochile

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